This week at The Archive we have been busier than usual, bringing you a glut of new and updated titles. In total, we have added an incredible 44 brand new titles to our collection, which may well be a record, with 149,250 brand new pages added in all.
Our new titles cover a range of specialities, from religion to the railways, and a range of locations, from London to Liverpool. Meanwhile, we have also updated 29 of our existing titles, with updates to newspapers from Ireland, England and Wales. We also took a look this week at the opening of the Thames Tunnel in 1843, the first tunnel to be successfully completed under a navigable river, which became something of a tourist attraction in early Victorian Britain,
So read on for your low down on all 44 brand new titles of the week, brought to you alphabetically today.
‘Family newspaper’ the Age was first published in 1852, costing three pence and consisting of eight pages. Unusually for the time, the Age was not printed from the presses of Fleet Street. No indeed, the Age was published by William Willott, of Warwick Villas, Kensington.
Featuring the usual array of various intelligences – City, Police, Provincial, Foreign, and Law – this Saturday newspaper also featured serialized fiction, such as a George Hooder story entitled Reuben Winch or The Career of Sin. With sections devoted to ‘Local Affairs,’ music, literature, the court, fashion and obituaries, the Age makes for a fascinating read.
Agricultural Advertiser and Tenant-Farmer’s Advocate
‘The Largest and the Leading Famers’ and Graziers’ Newspaper,’ which was ‘directed to the advantage and support of the Rights of the Tenant Farmers,’ the Agricultural Advertiser and Tenant-Farmers Advocate first appeared on 7 February 1846.
Published by Thomas Houghton Burrell, the Agricultural Advertiser appeared every Saturday and cost six pence, covering sixteen pages. It covered all the latest agricultural news, advocating for free trade and featuring ‘Provincial Intelligence.’
Bell’s Weekly Newspaper
A family newspaper for Sundays, Bell’s Family Newspaper was first published on 13 March 1858 and described itself as ‘A London Weekly Journal of Politics, Literature, Art, Manufacture, Shipping and General Information.’ A comprehensive record of the week’s news, covering 24 pages and only costing two pence, Bell’s Weekly Newspaper featured sections like ‘Law and Police,’ ‘News from India,’ and ‘The Cottage Gardener.’
Bright’s Intelligencer and Arrival List
Published in the North Devon seaside town of Ilfracombe, Bright’s Intelligencer and Arrival List was a ‘local literary organ’ which appeared every Friday priced at one penny. First arriving onto the publishing scene on 1 June 1860, printed and published by J.P. Bright, it gave lists of all the arrivals and visitors to Ilfracombe, whilst also featuring:
…a short account of local says and doings – an occasional brief leader or resumé of local topics of interest – a sketch of some short tour or ramble which may be made by our readers with ease and advantage.
A lively local paper, Bright’s Intelligencer provided news from the area, alongside a ‘bountiful stock of trade and lodging house advertisements,’ giving a wonderful picture of the Devon seaside town in the mid 1800s.
Nonconformist publication the British Banner was first published on 7 January 1848 with the watchwords of ‘Literature, Liberty, Humanity, Religion.’ Published by William Tyler and Charles Reed, this educative newspaper consisted of sixteen pages and cost four pence, and aimed to provide guidance to the prospective young British voter.
To this end, the first edition of the British Banner declared:
Ours is emphatically a mission of instruction on all great subjects appertaining to both worlds. As to earth and time, our ambition is, on Christian principles, thorough to educate the British Elector – to form a Model Citizen.
The British Banner was not ‘to be confounded with a common Newspaper;’ as it was set to ‘bring information, judgement and conscience to the discharge’ of young British men’s ‘duties at the Polling-Booth.’
Consequently, the British Banner contained many advertisements for instructive literature, as well as articles on the constitution, government and political economy. Also covered by the newspaper were the themes of Christianity, philanthropy and emigration, whilst space was given to news from abroad, and the latest from the courts.
A new series of the British Banner appeared from 4 January 1856, printed and published this time by Daniel Pratt, describing itself now as a ‘complete Weekly Paper for the use of Christian families.’
Charles Knight’s Town & Country Newspaper
First published on 12 May 1855, Charles Knight’s Town & Country Newspaper appeared on the publishing scene just after the hated stamp duty on newspapers was abolished. Consisting of 20 pages, and costing two pence, the newspaper took its name from publisher Charles Knight (1791-1873), who was better known for the Penny Magazine and Knight’s Quarterly Magazine.
Pricing itself at two pence, which reflected the removal of stamp duty, the first editorial of Charles Knight’s Town & Country Newspaper mused how:
Many will depend upon low price alone. We believe it is possible to combine the essential qualities of cheapness and goodness – to incur a liberal expenditure for the best literary labour, and yet offer an easy purchase for every family.
Meanwhile, the newspaper aimed to be ‘entertaining without being frivolous,’ whilst at the same time being ‘a Paper equally suited for TOWN and COUNRY.’
Colonist and Commercial Weekly Herald
Allying itself to the interests of the colonies was the Colonist and Commercial Weekly Herald, which first appeared on 1 February 1824, priced at eight and a half pence. It promised to ‘always be the advocate of the Colonies and those interested in the colonies,’ and to moreover ‘elucidate and enforce [the] importance of the colonies to all the inhabitants of the mother country.’
Consisting of eight pages, the Colonist and Commercial Weekly Herald pledged to always conduct itself in ‘temperate language,’ featuring ‘Colonial Intelligence’ from Jamaica and Trinidad, a ‘Foreign Register,’ ‘Commercial Intelligence,’ and a useful ‘Diary for the Week.’ The Colonist and Commercial Weekly Herald later became the Sunday Herald.
‘The Sentinel of the Constitution, Church and the Colonies,’ Sunday newspaper Common Sense first appeared on 1 August 1824, priced at seven pence. Printed and published by William Jeffreys, it also allied itself to the interest of Britain’s colonies:
It invites assistance from the information and experience of every friend of the Colonies, and will contain a correct analysis of events connected with their interests…our labours will not be spared in transmitting the earliest intelligence of what is passing at home, by which their destinies may be deeply affected.
To this end, Common Sense promised to feature ‘all News, Foreign and Domestic,’ with such sections as ‘Press in India’ and ‘Foreign Intelligence.
First published on 1 July 1838, the Crown was a Sunday newspaper that was printed and published by Robert Shalding. Costing six pence, the Crown declared itself to be ‘the weekly organ and recognised ally of the ministerial Whigs.’ The newspaper would be ‘Whig and Whig only,’ but it also promised to offer a ‘weekly magazine of City news.’
First published on 29 June 1861, the Croydon Times only cost half a penny, and was produced to answer a need in the local community, as its first edition relates:
…in these days of universal reading and writing, a demand has sprung up in our neighbourhood for a weekly paper, that will circulate at a cheap price…which will let us know what we each are doing, and what is doing in England and abroad.
The Croydon Times, therefore, was set to fill that gap, printed and published as it was by G.T. Purnell. A Liberal publication, it soon was circulating in Croydon and East Surrey. It featured the latest from the Croydon Board of Guardians and Board of Health, as well as the Croydon police. Other sections were devoted to ‘Town Talk’ and ‘Foreign Items.’ The newspaper became the Croydon Times and Surrey County Mail in 1933.
Daily Director and Entr’acte
‘A Daily Programme of Theatrical and Other Public Entertainments,’ the Daily Director and Entr’acte began life as L’Entr’acte on 16 May 1859, costing just one penny. It featured a list of London theatres, the plays that they were showing, as well as their cast members, showcasing ‘a current history of the British Stage.’
A treasure trove for those with in an interest in the history of theatre, the Daily Director and Entr’acte also contained a list of ‘other entertainments’ available in London, such as exhibitions and concerts.
Indeed, the Daily Director and Entr’acte was put forward as a daily ‘guide to all places of public amusement in the metropolis, and a cheap, ready, and concise means of obtaining information respecting them.’ Furthermore, its aim was ‘to supersede the Playbill and the Programme.’ It also hoped:
…in the future to be found in every club and respectable hotel in London; it will be sold regularly at the doors of, and if possible in, every theatre and place of public amusement.
Published by F. Duckett, his namesake newspaper Duckett’s Dispatch first appeared in 1816, published every Sunday and Monday. Consisting of eight pages, and costing eight and a half pence, in 1817 the newspaper published ‘a handsome ENGRAVING of Her Royal Highness the late PRINCESS CHARLOTTE AUGUSTA.’ An ‘elegant engraving,’ it was ‘executed expressly’ for the newspaper.
Duckett’s Dispatch, later known as Duckett’s Paper, featured news from home and abroad, for example featuring news on the General Election, and tidings of a ‘Hurricane in the West Indies.’ Meanwhile, it also featured longer thought pieces like one entitled ‘Liberty of the Press and Trial by Jury,’ and the latest from London’s theatres, police courts and markets.
Francis’s Metropolitan News
‘An Illuminated Advertiser and Illustrated Family Newspaper,’ Francis’s Metropolitan News was first published on 1 January 1859, showcasing printer R.S. Francis’s ‘new style of illumination.’ Francis used blocks of colour to highlight sections of his newspaper, giving Francis’s Metropolitan News a colourful aspect, making it stand out from the rest of its contemporaries.
Published every Saturday and costing two pence, Francis’s Metropolitan News featured a range of illustrations, depicting far flung countries like Corfu and Japan, and a ‘Portrait Gallery.’ It also contained art and science news, as well as a section entitled ‘Notes of the Week.’
‘A Weekly Emigration Newspaper,’ Golden Times was first published on 4 September 1852 at the cost of six pence, by Henry King. Its first edition tells of how ‘Emigrants may rely upon a well-directed energy of purpose’ from the new newspaper, which featured adverts aimed at emigrants, with details of emigrant ships and their destinations, as well as sections like ‘Guide for Australian Emigrants.’
The first edition even featured a prize ticket, which promised its winner free passage to Australia.
Illustrated London Life
‘One of the most extraordinary Publications ever offered to the World,’ Saturday newspaper the Illustrated London Life was first published on 11 March 1843. Consisting of eight pages, many of which featured illustrations, the Illustrated London Life cost three pence.
The Illustrated London Life aimed to ‘embrace and illustrate every description of Metropolitan Life in all its phases and aspects,’ endeavouring ‘to amuse the public without going far from town.’ For example, its first editions contained drawings and descriptions of the Burlington Arcade, and the market at Billingsgate.
Contemporaries seemed impressed by the new illustrated venture, describing the title as a ‘novel, useful and worthy effort…a kind of pattern card of Art, Music, and Poetry.’ Indeed, you could even make music from the Illustrated London Life; its first edition contained ‘an original illustrated ballad’ entitled Love and Death, with the necessary sheet music to enable readers to give a vocal and piano performance of the tune.
Illustrated Weekly Times
First published on 11 March 1843, the Illustrated Weekly Times represented an attempt to make illustrated newspapers appear more series on the publishing stage. Its first edition proclaimed how:
Hitherto the Pictorial Press has distinctly been characterised by its literary senility. Our object is to give strength, and to show that illustrations need not necessarily imply twaddle.
With its ‘decided…Liberal politics,’ the Illustrated Weekly Times made it its mission to ‘give the whole intelligence of the week as fully as our unillustrated contemporaries.’ And the Alexander Forrester produced Saturday publication was received warmly, one critic noting how it was ‘exceedingly well got up.’
The Illustrated Weekly Times featured ‘Portraits of Eminent Divines,’ as well as drawings of English castles, members of royalty, and contemporary works of art, amongst its illustrated fare. Meanwhile, it also featured sporting, police and assize intelligence, and the latest from parliament.
Liberal newspaper the Liverpool Telegraph was first published on 5 October 1836, at the cost of five pence. Appearing every Wednesday, its first edition decried the ‘worst times of Tory detraction and sympathies,’ proclaiming how its ‘sympathies are all in favour of instantly repaying the deep debt this country owes to Ireland for centuries of misrule.’
Supportive of the ‘extension of the Suffrage,’ the Liverpool Telegraph was determined to pack a political punch, announcing how:
…we enter into the field of political controversy with an unalterable determination to defend [our objects] with the legal weapons of argumentative warfare alone.
Featuring a range of different news items, such as reports on vestry and town council meetings, and ‘Maritime Intelligence,’ the Liverpool Telegraph also had something of a literary bent, showcasing poetry and ‘Literary Notices,’ as well as a whole page devoted to advertisements for new publications.
London Chronicle and Country Record
‘A Compendium of Passing Events,’ the monthly journal the London Chronicle and Country Record was first published by Dray & Co. on 5 February 1853 at the cost of five pence. The London Chronicle aimed to make itself ‘acceptable in all private families,’ and to be a ‘permanent record of whatever may be of general interest.’
The London Chronicle also served a dual role, however, not just reporting on the month’s news. It positioned itself as an ‘Emigration Journal,’ offering advice for those planning to emigrant to places like California and Australia.
‘Abjuring all party politics,’ the London Chronicle aimed to both instruct and amuse, featuring the latest from the world of drama and music, tidings of the newest inventions, and obituaries. A ‘Country Record’ also, it featured articles on wheat farming, poultry, and the weather.
London Daily Guide and Stanger’s Companion
‘The most useful Penny Publication in the metropolis,’ the London Daily Guide and Stranger’s Companion was first published on 30 April 1859, as a ‘Guide, Philosopher and Friend.’ Over four pages, the London Daily Guide, confusingly given its name, appeared every week to detail the events happening in London over the next seven days, sort of like an early Time Out magazine.
Indeed, publishers of the London Daily Guide advised that:
Hotel and Tavern-keepers and Licensed Victuallers in general will find that this journal is peculiarly adapted to meet the requisitions of their patrons. The information given in it is the fullest and most complete that can be obtained.
Indeed, the London Daily Guide was nothing but a thorough directory of all the amusements the capital had to offer – from theatre to music, from Charles Dickens readings to Madame Tussauds, from dancing to exhibitions, from baths to dining houses, from lectures to museums.
London Journal and General Advertiser for Town and Country
‘A Weekly Paper of News, Politics, Literature and Commerce, much larger than the Weekly Dispatch,’ the London Journal and Advertiser for Town and Country was first published on 17 September 1836 by James Richardson, at the cost of four pence.
In its first edition, it allied itself to ‘the millions,’ proclaiming how:
Our first and great object, as we have sufficiently indicated, is the social and political improvement of those whose only patrimony consists in their industrial powers.
The London Journal was, therefore, for the workers, and it identified its politics as ‘liberal without being ultra.’ The only party it knew was ‘the people,’ and its only object was ‘the common good.’
Meanwhile, within its eight pages you could find news of the murders, the fires, and the disputes which had occurred in London, as well as the latest from abroad, sporting news, and updates from the City.
London Railway Newspaper
A newspaper devoted to the railways, Edward Lloyd’s weekly London Railway Newspaper was first published on 11 October 1845 and cost six pence. Edward Lloyd (1815-1890) began his publishing career in penny dreadfuls, which enabled him to move into newspaper production. His newspaper, Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper, was the first newspaper to reach a circulation of one million. He later established the Daily Chronicle.
And Lloyd was quick to capitalise on the new area of publishing made possible by the railways. His London Railway Newspaper was dedicated to those who had invested money into new railway schemes. Indeed, its pages constituted:
…an impartial summary of facts appertaining to Railway Projects and Railway Management, of practical suggestions for the improvement of Railway Property, and the extension of the public safety and interests in connection with it.
In all, the London Railway Newspaper was set to be ‘a comprehensive collection and digest of Railway news.’ To this end, the London Railway Newspaper included details of public meetings of railway companies, railway news from across Britain, as well as sections like ‘The Progress of Railways in Execution’ and ‘Engineering Works and Improvements in Railways.’
With a motto of ‘Justice without Partiality, and Truth without Prejudice,’ pioneering social newspaper Metropolitan first appeared on the 28 June 1856, dedicated to improving the conditions of the city in which it was published. Its first edition outlined how it aimed to attain:
…the suppression of vice, the reform of the depraved, the protection of the innocent from contamination, the education of the young…in short the general elevation of the metropolitan population in their modes and habits of life.
Metropolitan gave a grim survey of the conditions in which many Londoners lived, ‘where the sun never shines, and the air is laden with pernicious vapours; where pure water is unknown.’ So what type of content did this Saturday newspaper feature?
You could expect to find the latest from ‘Philanthropic Institutions,’ as well as from local vestries, like St Pancras. There were articles relating to city life – such as ‘Perils of Pedestrians’ and ‘The Growth of London’ – as well as more general features covering political events and news from abroad.
Liberal daily newspaper the Morning Gazette was first published on 2 October 1837 at the cost of three pence, aiming to bring cheap daily news to the masses. Its first edition observes how:
The production of a new Morning Paper, and above all, a cheap Morning Paper, is an act which if not admirable for its prudence, deserves some little praise for its courage. The sale…of the Morning Journals has been hitherto limited by their Price
Whether mercenary or philanthropic in motive, it was the Morning Gazette which was making this brave step:
A Bold Experiment is now made in this Journal to secure a large circulation by a low price, and to bring a Morning Journal to bear upon the great mass of persons, who, anxious equally with the rich to know day by day what is interesting to all, are prevented, from the smallness of their means, from enjoying that, which is our intention for the future, to render no longer a luxury, but a necessity of life…
Daily news was no longer to be the preserve of the moneyed classes, therefore, if the pioneering Morning Gazette had anything to do with it. Meanwhile, the newspaper also sought to abolish the loathed stamp duty on newspapers, to advance education, and to extend free trade, as well as being supportive of household suffrage and vote by ballot, whilst demanding ‘Justice to Ireland.’
Saturday newspaper the National Protector arrived onto the publishing scene on 3 April 1847, at the cost of seven pence. Aiming to protect the nation with both its Protestantism and its Conservatism, the first edition of the National Protector declared that its ‘duty’ was to ‘extend the blessings of the Protestant creed, and to diminish idolatry.’ Indeed, the National Protector sought to:
…maintain the NATIONAL principles and the NATIONAL institutions of England – the great NATIONAL principle, that of Protestant truth – the great NATIONAL institution, that of the Church of England.
Meanwhile, within its pages you could find extensive ‘Foreign Intelligence’ from the likes of France, Spain, Portugal, India and Bavaria, with a section entitled ‘Foreign Odds and Ends.’ The National Protector also featured columns devoted to ‘Fashionable Movements,’ ‘Railway Memoranda’ and ‘University and Clerical Intelligence.’
‘Distinguished by a sincere and ardent attachment to civil and religious liberty,’ daily newspaper the New Globe was first published on 3 February 1823, at the cost of seven pence. If the title of the newspaper seems somewhat familiar (see the Globe), this was because of the bond which until ‘very lately subsisted between the Editor [of the New Globe] and the Globe newspaper.
Indeed, the editor of the New Globe claims to have turned his old newspaper the Globe into ‘one of the most flourishing Newspaper establishments in the metropolis,’ hoping to do the same with his new venture. He had also edited the British Press up until late 1822. The anonymous editor, however, does not give his name, as was customary in newspapers of the time, but we do know that the New Globe was published by one James Muir.
With the pages of the New Globe you could find the latest from the Bayonne, Lisbon and Brussels papers, as well as a ‘Naval Chronicle,’ news from the army, law intelligence, coverage of sports like boxing and pedestrianism, as well as notices of births, marriages and deaths.
Published in the historic Nottinghamshire market town on Newark, the Newark Advertiser first appeared as the Newark Advertiser, and Mercantile and Agricultural Intelligencer for the Midland Counties in 1854.
Politically independent, the Newark Advertiser appeared weekly on a Wednesday, circulating ‘extensively in Newark and the important agricultural district of which it is the centre.’
North London Record
First published from Exmouth Street, Clerkenwell, on 21 May 1858, the North London Record promised to be a journal of ‘interesting and important local intelligence.’ Moreover, this new London newspaper was firmly rooted in religion, as it explained in its first edition:
We are…pledged to our consciences to conduct our Journal in a high moral tone, and we mean to look at all events and movements in the light of religion, as Christian men ever should.
Furthermore, the North London Record promised to ‘fully and fairly represent all the sections of Protestant Christians in our district,’ pledging to provide ‘the essentials of a Local Newspaper with the attractions of a Literary Journal.’
Therefore, within the pages of the North London Record you can find a melange of local news, from summaries of parochial happenings, and religious and literary articles, with such sections as ‘Half Hours with Standard Theological Authors,’ ‘Special Sermons’ and ‘Home and City Missionary Work.’ In 1860, the North London Record became the Clerkenwell Journal and the North London Record.
Pen and Pencil
‘Illustrated Family Newspaper’ Pen and Pencil first appeared on 10 February 1855, priced at six pence and published by J. Clayton. Its first edition explained how its aim was:
…to unite the two qualities – literary ability and artistic excellence; to give a well-arranged and interesting and clear digest of the week’s news, with illustrations really illustrating and helping to the better understanding of those news.
Pen and Pencil, uniting literature and art, and using the latter to better inform the former, had lofty ambitions, aiming to combine ‘the best features of The Spectator and the Illustrated London News.’ Indeed, it featured the excellent artwork of engraver William James Linton (1812-1897), who also contributed to the Illustrated London News, and later emigrated to the United States.
The new newspaper also capitalised on a new and growing audience – children – with an ‘instructive and amusing’ page devoted to younger readers (you can find out more about the birth of the Children’s Corner in newspapers here). Meanwhile, Pen and Pencil featured the ‘News of the Week,’ with many of its illustrations depicting the ongoing Crimean War. Other illustrations depicted artworks on display at London’s galleries.
‘The first, best, and cheapest legal newspaper, with engravings,’ the Picture Times was first published on 30 June 1855 at the cost of two pence. This illustrated publication spanned sixteen pages, and provided drawings of contemporary events, like the war in the Crimea, and the Baltic Exhibition.
The initial popularity of the Picture Times surpassed all expectations, and it could not keep up with the initial demand. Indeed, it was said that the Picture Times was already reaching an audience of 200,000. By way of apology, the publishers gave away a free engraving, which depicted the French and British fleets in the Baltic.
A Saturday newspaper, the Picture Times featured a ‘Review of the Week,’ as well as ‘Foreign and Colonial’ news, with sections also devoted to law, the police, and ‘the Spirit of the Press.’
Sunday newspaper the Political Observer was first published on 28 November 1819, at the cost of eight and a half pence, by Philip Francis Sidney. Leading with the bold subheading – ‘Sold to no Party – Led By No Sect – Bound Down by No Man’ – proprietor Philip Sidney promised that the:
…first profits of the Political Observer should be devoted to the erection of an Asylum for the Orphans – as a Temple of Instruction.
Alongside this bold philanthropic promise, the first edition Political Observer offered detailed coverage of the latest from the House of Lords and House of Commons, whilst providing information on ‘City Business’ and emigration.
Railway Bell and London Advertiser
‘Ringing all the Changes’ was the Railway Bell and London Advertiser, which first appeared in 1844 ‘Under the Especial authority of Her Majesty’s Board of Trade, and with the sanction of the directors of the various railways.’ The Railway Bell was a publication which grew out of the latest advances in technology and transport, and contained ‘Time Tables and Other Useful Information.’
The Railway Bell’s unique selling point was that it brought together railway timetables from across the country, from Manchester and Leeds, from Hull and Selby, from Colchester, Stockwell, Shoreditch, into one publication. And to this end, it addressed the ‘Moving Masses’ as follows:
…the rich, the middle, and the poorer classes are all of them now Railway travellers…The absolute necessity of guiding Time Tables to all Railways, was manifest. Where was the want supplied in a cheap and efficient manner? Nowhere. The Railway Bell was consequently projected…meeting with unbounded success.
Society was being revolutionised, with the railways at the heart of that revolution, with the Railway Bell a leader of a new genre that followed such a revolution – the railway journal. The Railway Journal boasted a circulation of 100,000, and featured news of railway shareholder meetings, alongside the railway timetables. It also contained sections such as ‘Droll Things for the Passenger,’ ‘Books Worth Reading,’ and a ‘London Excursion Guide,’ all designed for the Victorian railway traveller.
Sunday Evening Globe
Liberal journal the Sunday Evening Globe was first published on 11 September 1836 by Francis Williams, costing five pence. With a motto of ‘Reformers, be united and strong,’ it claimed to be the only evening newspaper to be published on a Sunday.
With such articles as ‘Experiences of Democracy’ sitting alongside general news items, poetry and the latest from the theatres, the True Sun described the Sunday Evening Globe as being:
…thick and thin [a] supporter of the Government…It is not ill written: and though issuing from the same office, is apparently unpolluted by the smuttiness of the Satirist.
Sunday Morning Herald
The Sunday Morning Herald burst onto the publishing scene on 2 March 1824 with a clear aim: to be the first true Sunday newspaper. Costing seven pence, and consisting of four pages, it was published by Joseph Appleyard.
A Liberal publication, its first edition proclaimed:
We have no Sunday Papers. The numerous Publications called Sunday Papers, are, in reality WEEKLY PAPERS, containing, as far as relates to Intelligence, nothing more than an abstract of what has appeared in the Daily Papers of the Six Preceding days.
It is, there, proper to establish A REAL SUNDAY PAPER: a Paper which, instead of repeating, in an abridged form, the News which has appeared in the Morning Papers of the six preceding days, shall be itself a Morning Paper of the Seventh Day; containing a full and accurate account of every interesting Occurrence, whether Domestic or Foreign, which may transpire from the publication of the Daily Papers on Saturday Morning, up to the late hour on Saturday night.
First published on 1 June 1823, the Sunday News claimed to be the ‘only full size Quarto Paper which excludes all Advertisements,’ featuring 24 ‘Columns of Matter.’ Costing seven pence, and consisting of eight pages, the Sunday News hoped to give ‘the greatest possible portion of entertainment and valuable information by excluding from [its] columns every description of Advertisements.’
The Sunday News had taken a bold step in deciding ‘to forgo what is known to be the most lucrative resource of a common Newspaper,’ in order to prioritise ‘the whole week’s intelligence, from Monday morning to Saturday night.’ Clearing its pages from advertisements, then, the Sunday News featured such sections as ‘Political Remarks,’ a ‘Monthly Calendar of Fashion,’ and ‘Foreign Intelligence,’ also featuring army, law and financial news.
Bursting into life on 5 April 1829 by declaring ‘Destruction to Persecutors,’ The Palladium was a Sunday newspaper which cost seven pence and consisted of eight pages. Not opposed, however, to the persecution of Roman Catholics, The Palladium was immensely critical of the ‘atrocious bills’ passed in the 1820s which gave members of that particular faith greater freedoms.
Indeed, The Palladium describes how the ‘granting to the Catholics an extension of their privileges…gives [his] Majesty’s Protestant subjects very considerable uneasiness.’ To The Palladium, the ‘country [was] in danger…the altar and the throne menaced and assailed.’
So how did The Palladium propose to combat such a menace? Well, it printed ‘Protestant Melodies,’ alongside the usual offerings of international news, reports on drama and fashion, the latest from the police, assizes and agriculture, and the day’s ‘Sayings and Doings.’
Tower Hamlets Mail
Another local London paper added to The Archive this week is the Tower Hamlets Mail. Costing just one penny, this newspaper first appeared a year before the North London Record, on 24 October 1857. The Tower Hamlets Mail was devoted ‘to the interests of the Tower Hamlets,’ its objects being:
…the production of a first class newspaper at a cheap rate, having a specific mission to fulfil – namely, that of representing in the public press, the public wants of the inhabitants and aiming in every way to elevated the condition, and we trust to some extent, improve the working community.
A paper for the people of Tower Hamlets, the newspaper contained local London news, from Shoreditch and Greenwich, as well as sections devoted to the ‘Health of London,’ and recent cholera outbreaks.
Daily newspaper the True Briton first appeared in 1793. Consisting of four pages, it ran with the subheading of ‘Nolumus Leges Angliae Mutari’ – ‘We Will Not Change the Laws of England.’ A Protestant newspaper, it cost six pence, and in 1804 it offered its criticism of the ongoing war against France, as well as the government.
By 1822 it was under the editorship of John Joseph Stockdale, a controversial figure, but he could not reverse the newspaper’s failing fortunes, and the True Briton ceased publication in the same year.
‘An Ecclesiastical, Political, and Literary Newspaper,’ which incorporated The Church and State Gazette, religious newspaper Union was first published on 2 January 1857, priced at six pence. Appearing every Friday, and consisting of sixteen pages, Union was the ‘accredited organ’ of Tractarianism, that is the Oxford Movement, which saw members of the Protestant Church of England lean towards Roman Catholicism, and adopt more ‘High Church’ practices, such as prayers for the dead. The term Tractarianism comes from a series of 90 theological publications called ‘Tracts for the Times,’ which were published between 1831 and 1841 and were authored by the likes of John Keble, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey.
Featuring religious content, such as reviews of religious books, and ‘Ecclesiastical Intelligence,’ alongside adverts directed towards the clergy, Union also featured more general news, from the areas of crime, law and the courts, and included notices of births, marriages and deaths.
‘Published for the Working Classes,’ Vindicator (London) first appeared on 5 February 1859 priced at two pence. A ‘political Journal,’ Vindicator (London) was also religious, constituting a Roman Catholic newspaper for the working classes, for the ‘Catholic Working Class have no journal of their own.’
Consequently, as well as featuring the usual ‘Foreign and Colonial Intelligence,’ and news from home, the Vindicator (London) contained ‘Catholic Intelligence,’ garnered, for example, from the dioceses of Liverpool and Westminster.
‘Started to oppose the licentious principles of Liberalism,’ Sunday newspaper the Watchman first appeared on 11 March 1827, priced at seven pence, its motto taken from Henry VI Part II:
Watch thou and wake, when others be asleep,
To pry into the secrets of the state.
It is not surprising, given its ominous motto, that the Watchman fanned the flames of paranoia, observing how ‘The voice of patriotism has been stifled.’ Decidedly and vocally anti-Liberal, pointing at the ‘extreme distress’ of the country, with the price of property decreasing and talk of famine in the air, the Watchman gave the following as its purpose:
The Watchman is established to resist and expose those innovations which have sapped the foundations of our trade, and reduced this once happy and prosperous nation to a state of unexampled and unmerited embarrassment.
For the Watchman, all the country’s troubles could be traced to one source: Liberalism.
Again, you might recognise part of the title of this new newspaper, the Weekly Globe. A Sunday newspaper, it was first published on 4 January 1824 by S. Bowden at the price of seven pence. At the helm was the former editor of the Globe, the British Press and the New Globe, who had decided to take on the new challenge of editing a Sunday newspaper.
So, the publication of the Weekly Globe was ‘not so much the commencement of a new Paper, as the resumption of literary labours but recently interrupted.’ It featured such sections as the ‘Court of Public Opinion,’ with news from America, the army, the theatre, and the assizes all contained within its pages.
West End News
‘A Weekly Journal of Politics, Literature, Art and News,’ the West End News was first published on 6 August 1859 by Frederick Plummer. A Saturday newspaper, the West End News only cost one penny, and was ‘created to supply a want and fulfil a mission.’ Namely, it aimed to be:
…the organ of the intelligence, property, literature and art, of the mighty metropolis, the seat of government; and wealth of genius and the highest refinement, – for until this day these gigantic interest have never been specially represented in the Fourth Estate.
The West End News was, therefore, to be devoted to the arts, to music, to literature, featuring within its pages reviews for all the latest publications and productions. For example, its first edition featured a review of Tennyson’s Idylls of the King.
Practicing ‘advanced and constitutional Liberalism,’ the West End News promised to produce reviews ‘in a brilliant, popular, instructive and amusing form,’ whilst its news would be ‘concise and reliable, and [of a] varied character.’ Music and drama, meanwhile, would be ‘carefully criticised.’
World and Fashionable Gazette
Endeavouring ‘to blend instruction with amusement,’ Sunday title the World and Fashionable Chronicle first appeared on 4 January 1818 at the cost of ten pence. It hoped to ‘point the reader to the path of moral integrity’ through its pages, which contained a selection of news from parliament, Ireland, Scotland and America, as well as sections devoted to drama, the fine arts and fashion.
Wow – that was quite the run down! And with 29 of our existing titles updated this week you are in for quite a treat. Highlights from these updates include the over 5,000 pages we have added to the Leicester Evening Mail, the over 3,000 pages we have added to Swansea title the Cambria Daily Leader, whilst we have added the year 1868 to fascinating specialist title the Dublin Medical Press.
The Opening of the Thames Tunnel
On 25 March 1843, a tunnel under the Thames, connecting Rotherhithe with Wapping, was opened to great fanfare. It was the first known successful tunnel completed under a navigable river, and represented an extraordinary feat of engineering, overseen by father and son Marc and Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
Our wonderful title, the Illustrated London Life, gives a wonderful snapshot of the opening of the Tunnel, which became something of a tourist attraction. It patriotically notes how, despite Marc Brunel being born in France, on 1 April 1843:
The Thames Tunnel is now open for the transit of passengers. Another wonder has been added to the many of which London can boast; another triumph has been achieved by British enterprise, genius, and perseverance.
But it was not plain sailing for the Thames Tunnel, as it took nearly twenty years to complete. The Illustrated London Life relates how:
So the work began; but difficulties and obstacles of every kind were soon to be encountered. The soil was in many places of the worst possible description for boring; here it consisted of loose sand – there of mud. Every scheme which science could suggest was employed to guard against danger and ensure success; but again and again the river burst in, adding to the hazard of the workmen, while it protracted the period of their toil.
In 1828, the project was abandoned, and:
For seven long years the work remained untouched, the muddy waters of the Thames washing the half-finished brickwork, and rendering useless the labour and perseverance of years.
But after these seven years of inactivity, the scheme was once again embarked upon, the government supplying the necessary funds. With the river waters stemmed, the Thames Tunnel was finally opened on 25 March 1843 to great acclaim. The Illustrated London Life sings its praises as follows:
To the genius of its engineers, as well as the enterprise of London and of England, the tunnel will long bear witness. It is a speaking record of daring conception, of consummate skill, and of persevering industry. It will be the monument of Sir Isambard Brunel, as St. Paul’s is of Sir Christopher Wren; and if it possesses not the more striking and obvious beauties of the latter, yet to those who ponder upon its real nature, the Thames Tunnel will appear the most vast and marvellous structure of the two.
Deemed to be more impressive than iconic landmark St Paul’s Cathedral, was there a need for the tunnel under the Thames? The Illustrated London Life is emphatic in its support of the scheme, and one also must remember it would be some fifty years before Tower Bridge would be constructed:
Every one must be aware of the narrowness and crowded state of the thoroughfares upon either bank of the river for miles below London Bridge, and of the advantages which must result in point of convenience and comfort to all, could a part of the stream of traffic be turned into a new and capacious channel, such as is – or at all will shortly be – supplied by the tunnel.
Meanwhile, the Illustrated London Life goes on to list the further advantages of the tunnel:
It opens up a new avenue to the farmers of Kent, by which to bring their corn, fruit, and vegetables to the eastern portions of the metropolis; while to the mercantile and semi-seafaring population, located upon either side of the river, carrying on constant communication between opposite wharfs and warehouses, where the frequently crowded state of the river renders the passage by boats slow, inconvenient, and even dangerous, the advantages of such a mean of transit as the tunnel are as obvious as they are great.
And passage for the new Thames Tunnel was cheap, at only one penny, opening it up to all classes, which the Illustrated London Life saw as a sure sign of its success. And on the 9 April 1843, the newspaper gave the following report:
The Thames Tunnel, which was opened for foot-passengers on the evening of Saturday, the 25th ult., has been since visited by upwards of 100,000 persons, who have paid the penny toll, for the privilege of passing through it; and the hitherto deserted streets of Rotherhithe and Wapping have presented a very animated appearance.
On the first day alone, the tunnel saw 30,000 visitors, with police called in to keep order:
On Sunday, the crowds in High-street, Wapping, and also the entrance in Rotherhithe-street, seeking admission, were immense. A number of policemen were employed on each side of the river to keep back the crowd, and prevent accidents.
Even Royalty was curious about this ‘subterranean wonder,’ with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visiting the Thames Tunnel in July 1843. However, their visit was at such short notice, ‘few preparations’ could be made. Indeed, Sir Isambard Kingdom Brunel was too far from London to be reached.
The Queen was still greeted with some pageantry, as the Illustrated London Life relates:
At about half-past three o’clock there was a numerous attendance of visitors, the fact having transpired that her Majesty was about to visit the works. The flags were hoisted at the Tunnel works, and from various other places.
The Thames Tunnel continued to be a tourist attraction until it was made into a train tunnel in 1869, and today it forms part of the London Overground network, connecting the stations of Wapping and Rotherhithe.
This week we have updated twenty-nine of our existing titles.
You can learn more about each of the titles we add to every week by clicking on their names. On each paper’s title page, you can read a FREE sample issue, learn more about our current holdings, and our plans for digitisation.
|Barnoldswick & Earby Times||1954|
|Cambria Daily Leader||1907, 1910|
|Cambridge Daily News||1900|
|Cumberland Pacquet, and Ware’s Whitehaven Advertiser||1857-1858, 1874|
|Dublin Evening Post||1818|
|Dublin Medical Press||1868|
|Dundalk Democrat, and People’s Journal||1872|
|English Chronicle and Whitehall Evening Post||1802|
|Faversham Gazette, and Whitstable, Sittingbourne, & Milton Journal||1855-1856|
|Galway Mercury, and Connaught Weekly Advertiser||1856|
|Leicester Evening Mail||1913-1914, 1928, 1944|
|Peterhead Sentinel and General Advertiser for Buchan District||1898|
|Richmond & Ripon Chronicle||1877|
|St James’s Gazette||1894|
|Thacker’s Overland News for India and the Colonies||1858|
|Tipperary Free Press||1832|
|Weekly Times (London)||1826-1829|